Electron inventor - Sir Joseph John Thomson

Penemu Elektron - Sir Joseph John Thomson
 Joseph John Thomson (1856-1940) was a scientist who was born in Cheetham Hill, a suburb of Manchester on December 18, 1856, he signed up at Owens College, Manchester in 1870, and in 1876 registered at Trinity College, Cambridge as a regular student. He became a Fellow of Trinity College in 1880, when he became the recipient of the Wrangler and Smith (2nd). He remained a lifetime member of Trinity College where he was appointed professor of experimental physics since 1884.
He became speaker in 1883, and became professor in 1918. He was a professor of experimental physics at the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge, where he replaced John Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, from 1884 until 1918 and became professor of physics at Cambridge and honorable Royal Institution, London. His research led to the discovery of the electron. Thomson knew that the gas is able to deliver electricity. He became a pioneer of nuclear physics. Thomson won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1906.
Electrons are negatively charged subatomic particles and is generally written as e-. Electrons do not have components or substructure is known, so it is believed to be elementary particles. Electron has a mass of about 1/1836 the mass of a proton. Angular momentum (spin) of electrons is intrinsically half integer value in units of ħ, which means that it is a fermion. Antiparticle of the electron is called the positron, which is identical to the electron, but positively charged. When an electron collides with a positron, both are likely to be mutually berhambur or totally destroyed, resulted in a pair (or more) of gamma ray photons.
Electrons, which belong to the generation of the lepton particle family, participate in gravitational interaction, the electromagnetic interaction and the weak interaction. Just like all matter, electrons have properties of particles or bath tub wave (wave-particle duality), so that it can collide with other particles and berdifraksi like light. Therefore, the electron is a fermion, no two electrons can occupy different quantum states of the same in accordance with the Pauli exclusion principle.
The concept of electric charge that can not be divided again theorized to explain the chemical properties of an atom by a natural philosopher Richard Laming, beginning in 1838; name electron was introduced for naming this charge in 1894 by Irish physicist George Johnstone Stoney. The electron was identified as a particle in 1897 by J. J. Thomson.
In many physical phenomena, such as electricity, magnetism, and thermal conductivity, electrons play a very important role. An electron moving relative to the observer will produce a magnetic field and electron trajectory will also be curved by an external magnetic field. When an electron is accelerated, it can absorb or radiate energy in the form of photons. Electrons together with the nuclei of atoms are composed of protons and neutrons, make up atoms. However, the electrons only take 0.06% of total mass of the atom.
Coulomb attractive force between electrons with protons causes the electrons bound in atoms. Partnerships or exchange of electrons between two or more atoms is the main cause of chemical bonding. According to his theory, most of the electrons in the universe were created in the Big Bang (the big bang), but it also can be created through beta decay of radioactive isotopes and in high-energy collisions, for instance when cosmic rays enter the atmosphere.
Electrons may be destroyed through annihilation with positrons, and can be absorbed during stellar nucleosynthesis. Modern laboratory equipment can be used to load or monitor individual electrons. Electrons have many uses in modern technology, for example in electron microscopes, radiation therapy, and particle accelerators.
Thomson initially interested in the structure of the atom which is reflected in his book, entitled Treatise on the Motion of Vortex Rings which won him the Adams Prize in 1884. His book, entitled Application of Dynamics to Physics and Chemistry published in 1886, and in 1892 he published a book entitled Notes on Recent Researches in Electricity and Magnetism. Recent work wrapping the results obtained subsequent to the emergence of James Clerk Maxwell's treatise known and often referred to as the third volume of Maxwell.
Thomson collaboration with Professor J.H. Poynting to write a physics book in four volumes, entitled Properties of Matter and in 1895, he produced the book Elements of the Mathematical Theory of Electricity and Magnetism, fifth edition, published in 1921. In 1896, Thomson visited the United States to provide a course of four lectures, which summarizes new studies at Princeton University. The next lecture published as Discharge of Electricity through Gases (1897).
Upon his return from the United States, he gained the most brilliant work of his life, namely studying cathode rays mounting on the discovery of the electron, which is discussed during the course of the evening lecture to the Royal Instution on Friday, April 30, 1897. His book Conduction of Electricity through Gases published in 1903, described by Lord Rayleigh as a review of the "great days at the Cavendish Laboratory". The next edition, written in collaboration with his son, George, in two volumes (1928 and 1933).
Thomson returned to America in 1904, to deliver six lectures on electricity and matter at Yale University. The lecture contains some important statements about atomic structure. He discovered a method to separate the types of atoms and molecules are different, with the use of positive rays, an idea developed by Francis Aston, Dempster and others, which led to the discovery of many isotopes.
And again, for it is only mentioned and he wrote books, such as The Structure of Light (1907), The Corpuscular Theory of Matter (1907), Rays of Positive Electricity (1913), The Electron in Chemistry (1923) and his autobiography, and book Recollections and Reflections (1936), among many other publications. Thomson, a recipient of the service command, inducted in 1908.
He was elected to the Royal Society in 1884 and became president during 1916-1920; her medal Royal and Hughes in 1894 and 1902, and gained the Copley Medal in 1914. He was awarded the Hodgkins Medal (Smithsonian Institute, Washington) 1902; Franklin Medal and Scott Medal (Philadelphia), 1923; Mascart Medal (Paris), 1927; Dalton Medal (Manchester), 1931, and the Faraday Medal (Institute of Civil Engineers) on in 1938.
He was President of the British Association in 1909 (and of Section A in 1896 and 1931) and he holds an Honorary Doctorate from the University of Oxford, Dublin, London, Victoria, Columbia, Cambridge, Durham, Birmingham, Göttingen, Leeds, Oslo, Sorbonne, Edinburgh , Reading, Princeton, Glasgow, Johns Hopkins, Aberdeen, Kraków, and Philadelphia.
In 1890, he married Rose Elisabeth, putir Sir George E. Paget, K.C.B. They were blessed with a son, now Sir George Paget Thomson, professor emeritus of physics at the University of London, who also was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1937, and a daughter. J. J. Thomson died on August 30, 1940.
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